Glossary

Term Definition
Adenocarcinoma A type of cancer that begins in the cells that line certain internal organs, such as the colon, breasts, lungs, stomach, esophagus, pancreas, ovaries, uterus, and prostate.
Antibody Antibodies are proteins that are natulaly found in the blood stream and in other bodily fluids.  Antibodies are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize “foreign objects”, such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. 
Antigen Any material that is recognized by the immune system as dissimilar to “organism owned structures”. Antigens can be recognized and bound by an antibody. Tumor antigens can be found on the surface of cancerous cells or can be released into the surrounding tumor cell environment.
ENL210 Enlyton’s first product for SPECT/CT imaging of cancer. ENL210 is composed of an anti-TAG-72 humanized monoclonal antibody fragment and is coupled to iodine-123 (a radioactive substance).
CT Computed tomography. Also called CAT scan, computed tomography scan, computerized axial tomography scan, and computerized tomography. A CT scan is series of detailed X-ray type pictures of areas inside the body taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of bones and soft tissues. Each CT images is effectively a single “slice” of anatomy.
18F-FDG Fluorine-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose.  18F-FDG is a radioactive material that is frequently used in PET scanning. 18F-FDG is a compound composed of a radioactive fluoride atom (18F) attached to a glucose (sugar) molecule. Once injected into the body, 18F-FDG is attracted to cells that exhibit high levels of sugar processing (such as actively growing tumors). Radiation from 18F (97% positron emissions) is used to create pictures of how 18F-FDG is distributed within the body. 18F-FDG is also commonly written as FDG.
FDG Fluorodeoxyglucose. See the definition of 18F-FDG above.
HAMA Human anti-murine/mouse antibody.  A protein produced by the body’s immune system in response to the presence of an antibody derived from a mouse.
HuCC49DeltaCH2 HuCC49DeltaCH2 is the complimentary determining region (CDR)-grafted humanized CH2-domain-deleted anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibody. This third generation CC49 monoclonal antibody targets the tumor associated glycoprotein-72, a shed tumor antigen that is expressed by many adenocarcinomas.  The CH2-domain-deleted structure of HuCC49DeltaCH2 helps this fragment to clear from the blood stream more quickly.
Immunogenic The ability of any particular substance to elicit an immune response.
Iodine-123 The radioactive component of ENL210. A radioactive substance  that can be used for SPECT/CT imaging of cancer.
Molecular imaging Molecular imaging is used to create images of both physical (structural) and functional (molecular) aspects of the living body. It can provide information that would otherwise require surgery or other invasive procedures to obtain. Molecular imaging differs from microscopy, which can also produce images at the molecular level, in that microscopy is used on samples of tissue that have been removed from the body, and not on tissues that are still within a living organism. It differs from X-rays and other radiological techniques in that molecular imaging primarily provides information about biological processes (function) while CT, X-rays, MRI, and ultrasound provide information about physical structure (anatomy).
Monoclonal antibody A molecule developed in a laboratory that mimics the antibodies produced by the body’s immune system. Monoclonal antibodies, can be designed to attach to specific antigens expressed on the surface of cancer cells or to attach to specific antigenic by-products that are produced by cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies are used in cancer molecular imaging to guide the radioactive material to the cancer site. This allows for pictures of a tumor inside the body. Monoclonal antibodies are used in biotechnology and imaging because of their selective binding properties.
MRI Magnetic resonance imaging.  MRI is a diagnostic scan that uses high-strength magnetic fields rather than radiation. These pictures can show the difference between normal and diseased tissue.
MRI/PET Scan Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. The combining of two different imaging techniques, MRI and PET, that allows information from two different studies to be viewed as a single set of fused images.
PET Positron emission tomography. A procedure in which a small amount of a radiotracer is injected into a vein, and a scanner is used to make detailed, computerized pictures of areas inside the body where the radiotracer is taken up. PET is used for imaging in oncology, cardiology, and neurology. When 18F-FDG is used as the radiotracer for PET imaging, rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, which use a lot of glucose to fuel their growth, will show up as “hot spots” on the PET images.
PET/CT Positron emission tomography and computed tomography. A combination of two different imaging techniques, PET and CT, that produces fused images and provides details on both the anatomy and function of organs and tissues. This is accomplished by superimposing (fusing) the precise localization of abnormal metabolic activity (from PET) against the detailed anatomic image (from CT). The PET and CT fused images provide improved diagnostic accuracy of using PET alone in various clinical situations.
SPECT Single-photon emission-computed tomography. Similar to PET, SPECT uses a radiotracer and a scanner to record data that a computer constructs into two- or three-dimensional images. A small amount of a radiotracer is injected into a vein and a scanner is used to make detailed images of areas inside the body where the radioactive material is taken up by the cells. SPECT can give information about blood flow to tissues and chemical reactions (metabolism) in the body. It is also used for brain and bone scans and to detect infection and certain types of tumors.
SPECT/CT Single-photon emission-computed tomography and computed tomography. The combined use of two medical imaging modalities, SPECT and CT, to provide enhanced information to the clinician. The SPECT and CT fused images provides improved diagnostic accuracy of using SPECT alone in various clinical situations.
TAG-72 Tumor associated glycoprotein-72.  TAG-72 is also referred to as tumor associated antigen. A protein/sugar complex expressed by many human adenocarcinomas, including colorectal, breast, lung, gastric, esophageal, pancreas, lung, ovarian, endometrial, and prostate. This tumor antigen is found in the mucus produced by the cancer cell.
TAG-72 Positive Patient still has cancerous tissues
Refers to patient status when, at the end of surgery, TAG-72 laden tissues remain in the patient. This would include tumors, mucosa tissue, diseased lymph nodes, and any other tissue containing TAG-72.
TAG-72 Negative Patient is cancer free
Refers to patient status when, at the end of surgery, All TAG-72 laden tissues are removed from the patient.